英語の発音 フォニックス

英語の発音 フォニックス

フォニックスはあくまでも「大体のルール」であり、例外もあります。
それは、英語は色んな言葉から派生した言語だからです。
フォニックスを知れば英語の音が全てが学べる、というわけではありませんのでご注意ください。

 

1.There are 26 letters in the alphabet.

a. 5 Vowels: a, e, i, o, and u.
  • y and w can be vowels sometimes.
  • The gliding vowel sounds are called diphthongs (sometimes called vowel diagraphs): oi, oy, ou, ow, au, aw, oo.

b. 21 Consonants: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, and z
  • These are considered as consonant diagraphs: ch, sh, th, ph, wh, ng and gh.

 

2.Vowels:英語は必ず1つの音節(Syllable)につき1つ母音を必要とします。

a. Short a makes the sound you hear in the middle of cat.

b. Long a makes the sound you hear in the middle of baby.

c. Short e makes the sound you hear at the beginning of egg.

d. Long e makes the sound you hear at the beginning of eagle.

e. Short i makes the sound you hear at the beginning of igloo.

f. Long i make the sound you hear at the middle of time.

g. Short o makes the sound you hear at the beginning of olive.

h. Long o makes the sound you hear at the middle of joke.

i. Short u makes the sound you hear at the beginning of cup.

j. Long u makes the sound you hear at the beginning of humor.

 

3.The silent e rule

When a syllable ends in a silent e, the vowel in front of it is long.
eg.) make, gene, rope

 

4.The one vowel rule

When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long.
eg.) me, open, okay, paper, I

 

5.The vowel-consonant rule

When a word/syllable has only one vowel and comes at the beginning of a word, the vowel is usually short.
eg.) an, ant, in, up, end

 

6.The consonant-vowel-consonant rule

When only one vowel comes between consonants, that vowel is usually short. (or, when a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel)
eg.) rat, hand, Dad, hat. rug, jet, man, dog

 

7.The consonant-vowel-vowel-consonant rule (The vowel team rule)

When two vowels come together, the first vowel is usually long and the second vowel is silent. (Diphthongs don’t follow this rule. Diphthongs are considered to be one single sound.)
eg.) goat, toast, fruit, blue, road, foam

 

8.Consonants

a. B makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words bubble and book.

b. C can make two sounds. If the vowels e, i or y come after c, then c will have the s sound. If one of the other vowels (a, o, u) comes after c, then c will have the k sound.
eg.) centipede (s-sound), circle (s-sound), couch (k-sound), cat (k-sound)

c. D makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words dog and duck.

d. F makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words fish and feather.

e. G can make two sounds. Usually, words that begin with g make the same sound that you hear in Gary and goat. But sometimes a g can sound like a j, as in George and giraffe. This usually happens when the vowels e, i or y come after the g, but not always. The best way to figure out which g sound to use is to try both sounds and see which one makes sense.
eg.) gate (g-sound), guitar (g-sound), general (j-sound), gym (j-sound)

f. H makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words high and happy.

g. J makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words Japan and juice.

h. K makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words koala and KitKat.

i. L makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words ladybug and lamb.

j. M makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words mop and money.

k. N makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words net and necklace.

l. P makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words popcorn and pencil.

m. Q makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words queen and quiz.

n. R makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words rabbit and racing.

o. S makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words soap and starfish.

p. T makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words teacher and teapot.

q. V makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words victory and vision.

r. W makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words window and wagon.

s. X makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words xylophone and Xerox.

t. Y makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words year and yo-yo.

u. Z makes the sound you hear at the beginning of the words zoo and zebra.

 

9.A consonant blend(The vowel team rule)

When two consonants are side by side in a word, you hear both sounds blended together.
eg.) tree, snow, dragon, crispy, spoon, build, stand, tart

 

10.A consonant digraph

When two consonants are joined together and form one new sound, you hear one single sound that is never separated.
eg.) church, where, thick

 

11.The r-controlled rule

When a vowel is followed by an r in the same syllable, that vowel is r-controlled and often sound the same.
eg.) far, term, sir, sugar, semester

 

 

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